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Wiring and Pneumatics

Wiring up motors, sensors, and cameras and installing pneumatic tubing.

Summary

This section is all about plugging stuff in! This is where we’ll route and plug in all the cables, along with all the pneumatic tubing. We’ll also be making a couple umbilical harnesses, so break out that heat gun!

1 - Wiring the Y Motors

Routing and connecting the Y motor cables
QtyPart
1Y1 Cable Harness (Labeled Y1)
1Y2 Cable Harness (Labeled Y2)
4Zip Tie
4FDM-0016 (Cable Clip)
3FDM-0023 (Cable Clamp)
3M3x14 machine screw
3M3 Hex Nut

The left and right Y motors are connected to the motherboard using the cable harnesses Y1 and Y2, respectively. Grab these from your bundle of cables.

  1. Start by plugging in the unlabeled end of the cables into the Y motors. Y1 goes to the left Y motor, and Y2 goes to the right Y motor.

    Connecting the cable to the left Y motor
    Connecting the cable to the right Y motor

  2. Use four zip ties to secure the wires in place using the channels in the back legs as shown below.

  3. Next, put your LumenPnP up on its haunches, and route the cables along the inside groove of the extrusion extrusions running towards the front of the machine. Use Cable Clips to hold the cables in place along the extrusions.

  4. Use three Cable Clamps, three M3x14mm bolts, and three M3 nuts to hold the right side cable on the staging plate and route it towards the motherboard neatly.

  5. Route the cables underneath the motherboard for now; we’ll plug them in in a later step.

Next steps

Continue to sheathing the umbilicals.

2 - Sheathing the Umbilicals

Creating the two umbilical cables in the machine

Now we’ll assemble the two umbilical cables in the machine. The one connecting from the front left leg to the left side of the Y gantry is the Y gantry umbilical, and the one connecting from the front left leg to the X gantry is the X gantry umbilical.

Y Gantry Umbilical

This cable bundle will contain the following:

QtyPart
1X axis limit switch cable (XL)
1X axis motor cable (XM)
2Heatshrink tubing (large)
1150 mm (45 in)Woven sheathing
  1. To begin, we’ll get these two cables laid out at the correct spacing. XL and XM should be perfectly aligned on the label side, no offset.

  2. Measure out 1150mm of sheathing and cut it from the rest of the spool.

  3. Take the piece of sheathing and expand it by compressing it. You should find that inserting the two cables at the correct offset will maintain this offset while pushing the sheathing over them. Follow the pictures below for a good method of pushing the cables through the sheathing. If it starts to fray a little bit, don’t worry! This is purely a cosmetic step; you can trim off any frayed bits and use the heatshrink to clean up the ends.

  4. Push the sheathing up until there’s equal amount of exposed black cable of the shorter cable, as shown below.

  5. With the sheathing an equal distance from the closest connector on each side, slide two pieces of heatshrink tubing over the fraying end of the sheathing, with equal amounts on the cables and on the sheathing. This is to hold the sheathing in place, keep it from fraying, and generally making it look nicer. Use a heat gun or lighter to heat the heatshrink tight onto the cable.

X Gantry Umbilical

This cable bundle will contain the following:

QtyPart
1Z axis limit switch (ZL)
1Z axis motor cable (ZM)
1Left rotation motor cable (LM)
1Top light cable (DL)
1Top camera usb cable (longer usb cable()
2Heatshrink tubing (large)
1475 mm (58 in)Woven sheathing
  1. To begin, we’ll get these five cables laid out at the correct spacing. Having these spaced correctly ensures that every cable reaches every plug with strain relief and length for movement. Use the image below to make the correct spacing.

  2. Once you have the spacing correct, use a short zip tie to hold them together at this spacing to preserve it while sheathing.

  3. Now, cut a 1475mm piece of sheathing from the remainder and expand it by compressing it. You should find that inserting the cables at the correct offset will maintain this offset while pushing the sheathing over them. If it starts to fray a little bit, don’t worry! This is purely a cosmetic step; you can trim off any frayed bits and use the heatshrink to clean up the ends.

  4. With the sheathing an equal distance from the closest connector on each side, slide two pieces of heatshrink tubing over the fraying end of the sheathing, with equal parts on the cables and on the sheathing. This is to hold the sheathing in place, keep it from fraying, and generally making it look nicer. Use a heat gun or lighter to heat the heatshrink tight onto the cable.

Next steps

Continue to routing the Y gantry umbilical.

3 - Routing the Y Gantry Umbilical

Connecting and securing the Y gantry umbilical cable

For this, all you’ll need is your freshly made Y gantry umbilical cable bundle, and your bag of zip ties. Note that we’ll be plugging in the unlabeled end of the cables, as the labels are meant to help identify wires on on the motherboard side.

Securing to the Y gantry

  1. To begin, plug in the four terminal connector with only three wires into the X Limit Switch on the left side of the Y Gantry.

  2. Plug in the other connector (six terminal connector with only four wires) into the X Axis Stepper Motor, also on the left side of the Y Gantry.

  3. Align the cable bundle as shown in the picture below, and secure the cable to the Y Gantry Umbilical Mount with three big zip ties.

  4. Lastly, plug in the Y axis limit switch using the YL cable.

Securing to the frame

  1. Insert the Umbilical Swivel into the Frame Umbilical Mount

    inserting the umbilical swivel into the frame umbilical mount on the left side

  2. Move the Y gantry all the way to the back of the machine until you feel it hit the limit of travel. This will ensure that you don’t fasten the cable too tightly such that it restricts the machine’s motion.

  3. Pass the loose end of the wiring bundle through one of the holes in the Umbilical Swivel

  4. Take the cable bundle and guide it along the curved recess in the Frame Umbilical Mount. Take two zip ties and loosely secure them through the zip tie guides and around the cable bundle. Do not tighten them yet, as we still need to route the X gantry cable bundle through this same pair of zip ties.

Next steps

Continue to routing the X gantry umbilical.

4 - Routing the X Gantry Umbilical

Connecting and securing the X gantry umbilical cable

For this, all you’ll need is your freshly made X gantry umbilical cable, and your bag of zip ties. Note that we’ll be plugging in the unlabeled end of the cables, as the labels are meant to help identify wires on on the motherboard side.

Plugging in the Cables

  1. First, plug in the four terminal connector with only three wires into the limit switch on the right side of the X gantry.

  2. Plug in the small four terminal JST connector into the down camera.

  3. Plug in the three terminal JST XH connector into the down ring light.

  4. Plug in the six terminal JST XH connector with only four wires into the Z gantry stepper motor in the center of the X gantry.

  5. Lastly, plug the last remaining cable (four terminal connector with four wires, not JST XH) into the left gantry rotation stepper motor.

Securing the Cables

  1. Align the cable bundle with the X Gantry Back as shown in the picture below, and secure it to the guide with two large zip ties.

  2. Secure the left motor cable using a small zip tie and the slot in the X Gantry Front

Securing to the Frame

  1. Move the Y gantry all the way to the back of the machine until you feel it hit the limit of travel, and do the same with the X gantry to the right of the machine. This will ensure that you don’t fasten the cable too tightly such that it restricts the machine’s motion.

  2. Then, take the cable bundle and guide it along the Umbilical Swivel. Take five large zip ties and loosely secure them through the zip tie guides on the Umbilical Swivel and around the cable bundle. Do not tighten yet, as we still need to route the pneumatic tubing through these zip ties.

  3. Now route the cable bundle through the two loose zip ties you attached in the Frame Umbilical Mount in the last step. Don’t tighten these yet; we still need to route the pneumatics.

Next steps

Continue to connecting the cables to the motherboard.

5 - Connecting to the Motherboard

Plugging in all the cables in the machine into the motherboard

Take your LumenPnP and flip it up onto its haunches. You should see lots of cables loosely attached to the Frame Umbilical Mount, all looking for a home. We’re about to give them one!

Plugging in

  1. We’ll first start by plugging in the Y motors you routed behind the motherboard in Wiring the Y Motors. Plug the cable labeled Y1 into the left Y motor port on the motherboard, and plug the Y2 cable into the right one.

    correct orientation of the Y axis motor cables in the motherboard

  2. Take the Bottom Camera USB cable and run it to the left across the staging plate, under the motherboard, and out the other side. Plug it into the USB port by the label Btm Cam. Store the excess cable underneath the motherboard.

  3. Now we’ll do the same thing, but with the Top Camera cable. Guide it from the top left of the staging plate, underneath the motherboard from the top side, then out the side like the other USB cable. Plug it into the USB port by the label Top Cam and Store the excess cable underneath the motherboard.

  4. The rest of the cables can be routed without being tucked underneath the motherboard. Plug in the listed labeled cables into their respective ports, shown below:

Cable LabelMobo Label
XMX
Y1Y (Left Port)
Y2Y (Right Port)
ZMZ
LML
XLX (Under Limit Switches)
ZLZ (Under Limit Switches)
YLY (Under Limit Switches)
ULBtm Cam
DLTop Cam
P1MOS1
Valve 1 (No Label)MOS2

Strain Relief

  1. Now that we have everything plugged in, it’s time to attach all these loose cables to the frame. Use some Cable Clamps with some M3x14mm screws and M3 nuts to hold down the cables across the staging plate.

  2. Take your umbilical cable bundles and loosely secure them in place on the Umbilical Guide using two big zip ties. Don’t tighten all the way yet; we still need to route the pneumatics.

Next steps

Continue to connecting the pneumatics.

6 - Connecting the Pneumatics

Making all the pneumatic connections in the machine

Now that we’ve got everything wired up, it’s time to get all the tubing plumbed.

QtyPart
65 mm6mm Tubing (Clear)
230 mm6mm Tubing (Clear)
235 mm4mm Tubing (Black)
Remaining4mm Tubing (Black)

Plumbing the staging plate

  1. The origin of vacuum in the machine is our vacuum pump. The off-center port is the one that provides vacuum. Start by cutting a 65mm section of the 6mm clear tubing and pushing it onto the off-center port on the vacuum pump. Push the other end onto the inline plastic port of the valve as shown below.

  1. Cut a 230mm section of the 6mm clear tubing and push it onto the right-angle plastic port of the valve, and push the other side into the single, larger port of the Y splitter.

  2. Switch to using the smaller, 4mm black tubing. Cut a 235mm length of 4mm OD tubing and push one side into a fork of the Y splitter, and route the other end underneath the motherboard and onto the VAC1 sensor port.

Plumbing the X gantry

  1. Now take the remaining length of 4mm black tubing and push it into the other fork of the Y splitter. Take the loose end, and route it underneath the motherboard, then up through all the zip ties that are holding the X umbilical in place, including those along the swivel arm.

  2. Now that the pneumatics are also routed, we can finally tighten the zip ties on the umbilical cable guide. While your machine is still back on its haunches, tighten the zip tie on the umbilical guide to secure the wires and tubing to the frame.

  3. Bring your LumenPnP down onto its four legs, and tighten the zip ties, ensuring to keep a bit of slack between sections. You can move up the umbilical swivel and tighten all the zip ties along the whole thing.

  4. With the pneumatic tubing dangling loose past the end of the swivel arm, cut any excess tubing (still allowing some slack for motor rotation) push the other end into the pneumatic coupling on the back side of the rotation stepper motor. Extra slack will allow the motor to rotate freely 180 degrees in each direction, so err on the side of leaving more than less. If the tubing falls away from the umbilical, use one or two small zip ties to secure them together.

    The bottom of the staging plate should look like the image below:

Congratulations, you’re all wired and plumbed up! It’s time to give it a test!

Next steps

Continue to testing your machine.