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Mechanical Assembly

Assembling the frame of the LumenPnP

This section is about building the mechanical frame of the machine. Bolting prints and extrusion together, getting motion systems set up, and adjusting roller and belt tension.

Make sure you have all your tools at the ready, and let’s get going.

1 - Printing Parts

Printing all the parts necessary for the build

Getting The Part Models

Alright, time to get the parts we need to print! You can find the parts you need on the Releases Page, and look at the attached Assets at the bottom of the release. Click and download both LumenPnP-STLs and LumenPnP-BOM to get the STL files and BOM for your machine.

Printer Requirements

These parts are designed to fit onto a printer with a build volume of at least 18 x 18 x 18 cm, such as the Prusa MINI. Although not recommended, it’s possible to print the parts on a smaller printer with some creative placements.

Additionally these parts are designed for printers with a 0.4mm nozzle. Using a larger nozzle diameter can result in some features not resolving correctly, or parts not fitting as designed.

Material

These parts are designed for PLA, however, some folks have printed the parts successfully with PETG. You’ll need about 1 kg of the primary filament.

There are three situations where you’ll need specific filament colors:

  • White or transparent filament for the light mounts, top-light-mount and bottom-light-mount. These parts act as light diffusers for the ring lights.
  • White or light colored filament for the nozzle-rack. This helps with setting up the automatic tool changer.
  • A darker filament for the Z gantries, z-gantry-left and z-gantry-right. This helps the bottom camera distinguish the nozzle tip from the rest of the gantry. If you print in a lighter color anyway you can use a bit of blue painter’s table on the bottom side of the gantry.

There are two different print setting profiles you’ll need for printing the parts. We use PrusaSlicer’s setting names, but you should be able to adapt them if you use a different slicer. Every printer is a little different, but these settings should be a reasonable starting point. You can tune them as needed once you print the calibration print in the next step.

Default Settings

These settings are used for the majority of the parts:

Gantry Settings

These settings are used for parts that require more strength:

Use gantry settings for the following parts:

  • y-gantry
  • y-gantry-support
  • roller-spacer
  • x-gantry-front
  • x-gantry-back
  • x-idler-mount
  • z-gantry-left
  • z-gantry-right

Calibration Print

Before printing the parts, print the calibration part. This part contains every feature- screw holes, nut slots, extrusion profiles, etc.- used in the printable parts. Printing this first ensures your printer calibration and print settings are correct.

Corndog

This is the calibration print, colloquially referred to as “the corndog.". This part isn’t currently included in the exported STLs, so grab it from the link above.

After printing, you can check fit of various fasteners and one of the aluminum extrusions to ensure the parts you print will all fit as expected:

  • Check that M3 and M5 bolts fit through their counter-sunk holes.
  • Check that M3 and M5 nuts fit in both hexagonal voids and vertical nut slots.
  • Check that M3 and M5 bolts can be self-tap through the two holes inside the lock icon. They should take some effort, but they should grip well into the print.
  • Check that the 20 x 20 mm aluminum extrusion fits into the square hole.

Once you’re happy with the fit you can start printing the parts.

Printing The Parts

All 3D printed parts

You can find out how many of each part to print in the LumenPnP-BOM zip file you downloaded in the first step. After unzipping, open the HTML file in your browser to see the machine’s Bill of Materials.

The “Part Name” column will tell you which part to print and the “Quantity” column will tell you how many to print. There’s a rendered image of each 3D printed part as well to help identify them. Just print the parts that have the “Part Type” of “FDM”. The other items in this table are a list of all the other fasteners, hardware, and off the shelf parts used in the machine’s mechanical build- all of these have been provided in the kit.

The 3d models are already in the preferred orientation for printing, so you only need to make sure they’re placed within the build volume when slicing.

Optional Parts

There are some parts in the Bill of Materials page that are highlighted and flagged as optional. These prints are not necessary to print - feel free to print them if you think they’ll be useful for you, but they aren’t required for building the machine. There are notes in the BOM about what extra parts and steps are necessary to use them.

Next steps

Start by assembling the belt tensioners.

2 - Belt Tensioners

Assembling the belt tensioners used throughout the machine

Alright, time to get into the build! First, we’re going to build the belt tensioners that are used for the X and Y axes. You need to build three of these.

QtyPart
1 each, 3 totalM3 Hex Nut
1 each, 3 totalM3x16 machine screw
1 each, 3 totalM3 Cap Nut
1 each, 3 totalM5x25 machine screw
1 each, 3 totalM5 Nyloc Hex Nut
1 each, 3 totalM5x40 machine screw
1 each, 3 totalM5 Hex Nut
1 each, 3 totalGT2 Pulley Idler
1 each, 3 totalFDM-0037 (Belt Tension Arm)
1FDM-0001 (Front Left Leg)
1FDM-0002 (Front Right Leg)
1FDM-0013 (X Idler Mount)

Assembling the Belt Tensioner Arms

Belt Tension Arm Parts
  1. Insert an M3 Hex Nut into its slot on the back of a Belt Tension Arm.

    Inserted M3 Hex Nut

  2. Insert an M3x16mm Machine Screw through the front hole in the Belt Tension Arm and then tighten.

    M3 Screw and M3 Hex Nut installed

  3. Thread an M3 Cap Nut on the end of the M3x16mm Machine Screw.

    M3 Screw, M3 Nut, and M3 Cap Nut installed

  4. Insert an M5x25mm Machine Screw through the hole in the top of the Belt Tension Arm so that it passes through a GT2 Pulley Idler.

    M5 screw and GT2 Pulley Idler positioned

  5. Add an M5 Nyloc Hex Nut on the bottom of the Belt Tension Arm and tighten. Make sure the idler can still spin freely.

    M5 Screw, GT2 Idler Pulley, and M5 Nut installed

  6. Repeat this two more times so that you have a total of three arms.

Attaching a tensioner to the left side

Now you’ll attach the first tensioner to the Front Left Leg:

  1. Insert an M5 Nyloc Hex Nut into the recess for a hex nut on the bottom of one of the idler mount arms on the Front Left Leg.

    M5 Nyloc Hed Nut positioned in Front Left Leg

  2. Insert a completed Belt Tension Arm assembly between the arms on the Front Left Leg, with the screw head of the M5x25mm facing up.

    Belt Tensioner Arm

  3. Insert an M5x40mm Machine Screw through the hole in the top so that it passes through the Belt Tension Arm and tightens into the M5 Nyloc Hex Nut. Do not over-tighten, and ensure you can still pivot the tension arm.

    M5x40mm screw inserted into Idler and Belt Tensioner Arm
    Idler and Belt Tension Arm installed on Leg

Attaching a tensioner to the right side

Next, attach the second tensioner the the Front Right Leg. This is nearly identical to the first one:

  1. Insert the M5 Nyloc Hex Nut into the recess for a hex nut on the bottom of one of the idler mount arms on the Front Right Leg.

    M5 Nyloc Hed Nut positioned in Front Left Leg

  2. Insert a completed Belt Tension Arm assembly between the arms on the Front Right Leg, with the screw head of the M5x25mm facing up.

    Belt Tensioner Arm

  3. Insert the M5x40mm Machine Screw through the hole in the top so that it passes through the Belt Tension Arm and tighten into the M5 Nyloc Hex Nut. Do not over-tighten, and ensure you can still pivot the tension arm.

    M5x40mm screw inserted into Idler and Belt Tensioner Arm
    Idler and Belt Tension Arm installed on Leg

Attaching a tensioner to the X idler mount

The third and final tensioner is attached to the X Idler Mount. This is only slightly different from the previous two:

  1. Insert the M5 Nyloc hex nut into the recess on the bottom of the X Idler Mount.

    Nyloc hex nut installed on the X Idler Mount

  2. Insert the completed Belt Tension Arm into its slot in the X Idler Mount.

    Belt Tension Arm inserted into Idler Mount

  3. Insert the M5x40mm machine screw through the hole in the top of the X Idler Mount so that it passes through the Belt Tension Arm and tightens into the Nyloc Hex Nut. Do not over-tighten, and ensure you can still pivot the Belt Tension Arm.

    Completed Belt Tension Arm installed in Idler Mount
    Completed Belt Tension Arm installed in Idler Mount

Next steps

Now that all the tensioners are in the right place, continue with assembling the left side.

3 - Left Side

Assembling the left side of the machine

Now that the belt tensioner arms are assembled and attached, it’s time to start working on the frame. You’ll start by assembling the left side of the machine as seen from the front:

The machine shown from the front

Assembly

QtyPart
1FDM-0001 (Front Left Leg)
1FDM-0003 (Back Left Leg)
2Aluminum extrusions
6M5 T-slot nut
6M5x10 machine screw
1NEMA17 Stepper motor
1GT2 Pulley (with grub screws)
6M3x8 machine screw
1Limit switch PCB
2M5x25 machine screw
1FDM-0007 (Frame Umbilical Mount)
1FDM-0046 (Umbilical Swivel Part 1)
1FDM-0047 (Umbilical Swivel Part 2)
1M5x40 machine screw
  1. Take the Front Left Leg and insert the v-slot extrusions into the two square holes designed to take this part. Ensure that the extrusion comes to the end of the holes in which they’re inserted. If you have a hard time getting the extrusion into the slots, gently slide them into place using some taps from a mallet.

    Inserting the V-slot Extrusions into the Front Left Leg

  2. Take the Back Left Leg and place it onto two v-slot extrusions at the end opposite the Front Left Leg. Your progress should look like the image below.

    Inserting the V-slot Extrusions into the Back Left Leg
    Inserting the V-slot Extrusions into the Front Left Leg Result 2

  3. On the top rail, drop in and position a slot nut underneath the hole in the top of each leg and screw a M5x10mm machine screw into the nut.

    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the top of the Front Left Leg
    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the top of the Back Left Leg
    Top screws securing V-slot Extrusions

  4. On the bottom rail, the outer side has three exposed holes for machine screws (one on the Back Left Leg, two on the Front Left Leg). For each, drop in and position a slot nut under it and screw a M5x10mm machine screw into it.

    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the Side of the Front Left Leg
    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the Side of the Back Left Leg
    All three screw locations for securing the V-slot Extrusions to the Front Left Leg and the Back Left Leg

  5. On the bottom rail, the inner side has one exposed hole for a machine screw on the Back Left Leg. Drop in and position a slot nut under it and screw a M5x10mm machine screw into it.

    Securing the Bottom V-slot Extrusion to the top of the Back Left Leg
    Securing the Bottom V-slot Extrusion to the top of the Back Left Leg alternate view

  6. Slide the GT2 Pulley onto the the motor shaft of a NEMA17 stepper motor with the set screw side facing the motor body. Align the pulley so that the end is roughly flush with the end of motor shaft, then tighten one of the set screws on the pulley into the flat side of the motor shaft. Tighten the second set screw as well.

    Attaching the GT2 Timing Pulley to the NEMA17 stepper motor

  7. Mount the NEMA17 stepper motor to the Back Left Leg. Attach it using four M3x8mm screws, ensuring that the connector is facing inwards towards the zip tie loops as dictated in the picture.

    Mounting the Left Y-axis NEMA17 stepper motor to the Back Left Leg
    Orienting Left Y-axis NEMA17 stepper motor with the connector facing inwards

  8. Mount one of the three limit switches to the Front Left Leg as shown in the image. Use two M3x8mm screws and tap them directly into the print.

    Attaching the Y-axis limit switch

  9. Next, we’ll mount the Frame Umbilical Mount. Using two M5x25mm screws, attach it to the Front Left Leg as shown, threading directly into the part.

    Attaching the Frame Umbilical Mount to the Front Left Leg

  10. Lastly, we’ll assemble the umbilical swivel. Swivel Part 1 and Swivel Part 2 fit together as shown below, and are secured in place with a M5x40mm screw and an M5 nut. Tighten so there’s no play in the fit, but the two parts can swivel easily. This part helps keep the X gantry umbilical suspended over the build area. Set it aside for now.

Next steps

Continue to assembling the right side.

4 - Right Side

Assembly of the right side of the machine

Great! Now lets make the right side. Very similar to the left, just a couple small changes. Remember that we’re referring to the right side of the machine as seen from the front:

The machine shown from the front

Assembly

QtyPart
1FDM-0002 (Front Right Leg)
1FDM-0004 (Back Right Leg)
2Aluminum extrusion
6M5 T-slot nut
6M5x10 machine screw
1NEMA17 stepper motor
1GT2 Pulley (with grub screws)
4M3x8 machine screw
  1. Take the Front Right Leg and insert the v-slot extrusions into the two square holes designed to take this part. Ensure that the extrusion comes to the end of the holes in which they’re inserted. If you have a hard time getting the extrusion into the slots, gently slide them into place using some taps from a mallet.

    Inserting the V-slot Extrusions into the Front Right Leg

  2. Take the Back Right Leg and place it onto the two v-slot extrusions at the end opposite the Front Right Leg. Your progress should look like the image below.

    Inserting the V-slot Extrusions into the Back Right Leg
    Inserting the V-slot Extrusions into the Front Right Leg result 2

  3. On the top rail, drop in and position a slot nut underneath the hole in the top of each leg and screw a M5x10mm machine screw into the nut.

    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the top of the Front Right Leg
    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the top of the Back Right Leg
    Location for the top screws

  4. On the bottom rail, the outer side has three exposed holes for machine screws (one on the Back Right Leg, two on the Front Right Leg). For each, drop in and position a slot nut under it and screw a M5x10mm machine screw into it.

    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the Side of the Front Right Leg
    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the Side of the Back Right Leg
    Location for screws on the outer side

  5. On the bottom rail, the inner side has one exposed hole for a machine screw on the Back Right Leg. Drop in and position a slot nut under it and screw a M5x10mm machine screw into it.

    Securing the V-slot Extrusions to the Side of the Back Right Leg
    Location for the inner screw

  6. Slide the GT2 Pulley onto the the motor shaft of a NEMA17 stepper motor with the set screw side facing the motor body. Align the pulley so that the end is roughly flush with the end of motor shaft, then tighten one of the set screws on the pulley into the flat side of the motor shaft. Tighten the second set screw as well.

    Attaching the GT2 Timing Pulley to the NEMA17 stepper motor

  7. Mount the NEMA17 stepper motor to the Back Right Leg with four M3x8mm screws, ensuring that the connector is facing inwards towards the zip tie loops as dictated in the picture.

    Mounting the Right Y-axis NEMA17 stepper motor to the Back Right Leg
    Orienting Right Y-axis NEMA17 stepper motor with the connector facing inwards

Next steps

Continue to connecting the two sides together.

5 - Connecting the Sides

Attaching the left and right sides of the machine together

Now we’re going to combine the left and right side together using two aluminum extrusions, and the staging plate.

QtyPart
2Aluminum extrusion
16M5 T-slot nut
4M5x10 machine screw
12M5x8 machine screw
62020 Corner Bracket
1FDM-0022 (Umbilical Guide)
  1. Insert a new v-slot extrusion (in green below) into the Front Left Leg underneath the bottom rail.

    Insert V-slot extrusion into Front Left and Right Feet overview
    Insert V-slot extrusion into Front Left Foot
    Insert V-slot extrusion into Front Right Foot
    Insert V-Slot Into Frame

  2. Drop in and position a slot nut underneath the hole and use a M5x10mm machine screw to fasten the v-slot extrusion to the Front Left Leg.

    Use a M5x10mm screw to attach the cross piece to the Front Left Leg

  3. Drop in and position a slot nut underneath the hole and use a M5x10mm machine screw to fasten the v-slot extrusion to the Front Right Leg.

    Use a M5x10mm screw to attach the cross piece to the Front Right Leg

  4. Attach one of the included metal 2020 corner bracket to the 20x20 V-Slot on the left side using two slot nuts and two M5x8mm screws.

    Attach a 2020 corner bracket on the left side

  5. Attach a 2020 corner bracket to the 20x20 V-Slot on the right side using two slot nuts and two M5x8mm screws.

    Attach a 2020 corner bracket on the right side

  6. Fasten the Umbilical Guide on the bottom side of the bottom rail of the left side in place using two M5x10mm screws and two slot nuts.

    Fasten the umbilical guide with M5x10mm screws

  7. Affix a 2020 corner bracket to the end of another V-slot using the a slot nut and an M5x8mm screw. Make sure the side of the bracket is perfectly flush with the end of the extrusion. It helps to tighten it in place against a flat surface.

    Attach a 2020 corner bracket to the v-slot extrusion

  8. Repeat the previous step three times to install three more braces in the orientation shown below. This is the back rail.

    Attach 3 more 2020 corner brackets to the v-slot extrusion

  9. Flip the machine upside down. Using four M5x8mm screws and four slot nuts, fasten the back rail to the left and right sides of the machine as shown below. Make sure that the ends of the back rail are perfectly flush with the sides of the extrusion on the left and right sides. This will help keep the machine square. The brackets do not need to be touching the printed feet.

    Fasten the rear brace using two M5x8mm screws overview
    Fasten the rear brace using two M5x8mm screws Left view
    Fasten the rear brace using two M5x8mm screws Right view
    Fasten the rear brace using two M5x8mm screws Bottom view

Next steps

Continue to assembling the Y Gantry.

6 - Y Gantry Assembly

Assembling the Y Gantry

It’s time to get going on the Y gantry. This is what moves the toolhead forward and back, and also carries the X gantry as well. We’ve got a few sub-assemblies in this one, so let’s dive in!

X Motor Mount Sub-Assembly

QtyPart
1NEMA17 stepper motor
1GT2 Pulley (with grub screws)
1FDM-0006 (X Motor Mount)
4M3x8 machine screw
  1. Slide the GT2 Pulley onto the the motor shaft of a NEMA17 stepper motor with the set screw side facing the motor body. Align the pulley so that the end is roughly flush with the end of motor shaft, then tighten one of the set screws on the pulley into the flat side of the motor shaft. Tighten the second set screw as well.

    Set screws holding the GT2 Pulley on the stepper motor

  2. Place the motor onto the X Motor Mount with the wires exiting the motor on the left side of the mount.

    Orient the motor connector to the left of the X Motor Mount

  3. Mount the NEMA17 stepper motor to the X Motor Mount with four M3x8mm screws. Again, check that the connector is facing towards the left side of the mount.

    Screw in the motor and double-check its orientation

Y Gantry Sub-Assemblies

Note: You will need to build two identical Y Gantry Sub-Assemblies. You can build them one at a time, or in parallel, step by step.

QtyParts
1FDM-0005 (Y Gantry)
1FDM-0008 (Y Gantry Support)
10M5 Hex Nut
2M3 Hex Nut
2M3x16 machine screw
2M5x40 machine screw
2V-Slot roller wheel
  1. Insert eight M5 hex nuts into the slots indicated below on one of the Y Gantries.

    M5 hex nut locations on the Y Gantry

  2. Ensure each hex nut is fully seated into their slot. It may be helpful to pull the hex nuts fully into location by screwing a M5x10mm machine screw into them from the opposite side of the Y Gantry. Afterwards, remove the screw.

  3. Insert a M3 Hex Nut vertically into the slot at the bottom of the Y Gantry.

    M3 hex nut location on the Y Gantry

  4. Loosely thread an M3x16mm machine screw into the nut installed in the previous step until you can see the tip of the screw poking through the nut.

    Installing an M3 screw into the M3 nut on the Y Gantry

  5. Insert an M3 nut vertically into the slot indicated below on a Y Gantry Support.

    M3 hex nut location on the Y Gantry Support

  6. Loosely thread an M3x16mm machine screw into the nut installed in the previous step until you can see the tip of the screw poking through the nut.

    Installing an M3 screw into the M3 nut on the Y Gantry Support

  7. Insert two M5x40mm machine screws, one into each of the top roller positions in the Y Gantry.

    Two long M5x40mm inserted into the Y Gantry

  8. Slide a V-Slot roller one onto each of the two M5x40mm machine screws. Note: you may need to align one or both of the interior washers inside the rollers, as they can shift in shipping and block the hole for the screw. Simply push the washers back into place with a screwdriver tip.

    Two v-slot rollers slid onto the screws that will connect the Y Gantry to the Y Gantry Support

  9. Insert two M5 nuts into the back side of Y Gantry Support and then place the assembly onto the two M5x40mm machine screws from the last step. Loosely screw them in so they’re attached; we’ll tighten them in a later step.

  10. Repeat steps 12-20 for the second Y Gantry and Y Gantry Support.

Final Assembly

QtyPart
1Aluminum extrusion
2M5 T-slot nut
2M5x10 machine screw
8M5x25 machine screw
1FDM-0010 (Y Gantry Umbilical Mount)
1Limit switch PCB
2M3x8 machine screw
1FDM-0013 (X Idler Mount) with belt tensioner
  1. Place a Y gantry assembly on each end of a v-slot extrusion. Don’t worry about pushing it all the way into the print; we’ll be adjusting it in a later step.

    Inserting the v-slot extrusion into the Y Gantry
    The v-slot extrusion attached to both Y Gantries

  2. Drop in and position a T slot nut under the machine screw hole on the top of each gantry side and loosely thread a M5x10mm machine screw into each of the nuts. Again, we’ll adjust this later.

    one screw and T slot nut securing a Y gantry to the v-slot extrusion

  3. Using four M5x25mm machine screws, attach the X idler assembly to the right side gantry body. Note that orientation does matter here: the head of the machine screw that holds the idler should be visible when looking down at the top of the machine, and the chamfers on the X Idler Mount line up with the ones on the Y Gantry.

    4 screws attaching the X Idler Mount to the Y Gantry
    Proper orientation of the X Idler Mount on the Y Gantry, with the screws pointing downwards.

  4. Using four M5x25mm machine screws, attach the X Motor Mount and Y Gantry Umbilical Mount to the left side gantry assembly. The motor should be on top with the pulley facing downwards. The Gantry Umbilical Mount should be at the back, on the same side as the motor’s cable connector.

    4 screws attaching the X Motor Mount and Gantry Umbilical Mount
    Detail view of the two screws holding in the Gantry Umbilical Mount

  5. Finally, mount the X axis limit switch to the Y Gantry. Secure it in place using two M3x8mm screws as shown in the image below. These screws tap directly into the print.

    Two screws holding in the X axis limit switch

Next steps

Continue to assembling the X Gantry.

7 - X Gantry Assembly

Assembling the X gantry

Alright, the last major bit of assembly! Once this is done, the majority of the machine’s structure is built.

X Gantry Preparation

QtyPart
1FDM-0011 (X Gantry Front)
1FDM-0012 (X Gantry Back)
4M5 Hex Nut
12M3 Hex Nut
1M5 Nylock Hex Nut
  1. Insert four M5 Hex Nuts into the slots on the X Gantry Back as shown below.

    four M5 hex nut locations

  2. Ensure each hex nut is fully seated into their slot. It may be helpful to pull the hex nuts fully into location by screwing a M5x10mm machine screw into them from the opposite side of the X Gantry Back. Afterwards, remove the screw.

  3. Insert four M3 Hex Nuts, two vertically and two horizontally into the slots on X Gantry Back as indicated below.

    four M3 hex nut locations, two vertical and two horizontal

  4. Insert six M3 Hex Nuts into the slots on the X Gantry Front as shown below.

    Six hex nut locations on the front of the X Gantry Front

  5. Insert two more M3 nuts into the vertical slots on the other side of the X Gantry Front.

    Two vertical hex nut locations on hte X Gantry Front

  6. Pull the hex nuts fully into location by screwing a M3x10mm machine screw into them from the opposite side of the X Gantry Front. Then unscrew the M3x10mm machine screw.

  7. Insert a M5 Nylock Hex Nut into the slot at the bottom of the X Gantry Front.

    Inserting one Nylock hex nut at the bottom of the X Gantry Front

Attaching X Gantry Front and Back

QtyPart
2M5x40 machine screw
2FDM-0009 (Roller spacer)
2V-slot roller wheel
2M5 Hex Nut
  1. Insert two M5x40mm machine screws, one into each of the top two holes on the X Gantry Front.

    M5x40 screws inserted into the X Gantry Front

  2. Slide a Roller Spacer onto each of the two machine screws.

    Roller Spacers added to the stack with the X Gantry Front

  3. Slide a V-slot roller onto each of the two machine screws. Note: you may need to align one or both of the interior washers inside the rollers, as they can shift in shipping and block the hole for the screw. Simply push the washers back into place with a screwdriver tip.

    V-slot rollers added to the stack
    Side view of the stack with the V-slot rollers, roller spacer, and X Gantry Front

  4. Place the X Gantry Back onto the two machine screws.

    X Gantry Back added to the stack

  5. Install two M5 Hex Nuts, one into each of the slots on the X Gantry Back. Tighten the nuts on the machine screws so that the two sides are snug against the V-slot rollers.

    X Gantry Back secured with two M5 Hex Nuts

Preparing for the Z Gantry

QtyPart
2100mm Linear Rail
6M3x14 machine screw
1NEMA17 stepper motor
6M3x8 machine screw
1Limit switch PCB
1GT2 Pulley Idler
1M5x25 machine screw
  1. Carefully and safely remove the stoppers holding the gantry onto the linear rail. Depending on your kit, these could be metal clips or rubber stoppers inserted through the rail. Take care not to accidentally slide the bearings off of the linear rails after removing the stoppers. The bearings will be properly blocked from being removed after the linear rails are attached to the X Gantry Front and the Z-axis limit switch is installed.

  2. Place the two linear rails onto the front of the X Gantry Front and line up each one with the arrays of three holes on the left and right side. Place three M3x14mm machine screws into each of the rails (the holes on the ends first, then hole one in the middle) and tighten down.

    Securing the Z-axis linear rails

  3. Place the NEMA 17 motor so the shaft runs through the X Gantry Front and emerges on the same side as the linear rails. Make sure the motor’s connector is pointing towards the umbilical guide as shown below. Use using four M3x8mm machine screws to fasten the NEMA17 motor to the X Gantry Front.

    Screw in the Z-axis motor
    Highlighting the correct direction for the Z-axis motor connector: pointing towards the umbilical.

  4. Attach the limit switch PCB with two M3x8mm screws at the top right of the X Gantry Front.

    Securing the Z-axis limit switch

  5. Slide a GT2 idler onto a M5x25mm machine screw. Thread that assembly through X Gantry Front and tighten on the Nyloc Hex Nut on the back side. Ensure that the fit is tight and there’s no wiggle in the idler, but also make sure that it can spin freely and isn’t seizing from over-tightening.

    Z-axis idler assembly

Z Gantry Assembly

QtyPart
1FDM-0040 (Left Z Gantry Backplate)
1FDM-0041 (Right Z Gantry Backplate)
1FDM-0017 (Left Z Gantry)
1FDM-0039 (Right Z Gantry)
1GT2 Timing Belt
8M3x8 machine screw
1GT2 Pulley (with grub screws)

Now it’s time to mount the Z gantries. Each gantry comes in two parts. The first is a back plate that sits against the linear rail carriage, and connects to the timing belt, called Left Z Gantry Backplate and Right Z Gantry Backplate. These will always be on your machine. Even when you swap toolheads, these will stay attached to the linear rail.

  1. First, we need to get the GT2 timing belt inserted into the back plates at the right spacing. Insert the end of your GT2 belt halfway along the slot in the Right Z Gantry Backplate. Then slide the belt into the slot in the Left Z Gantry Backplate with 108mm of belt between them (when measuring from the edges of the prints). Your setup should look like the image below:

  2. Now, cut the loose end of the belt such that there is 114mm remaining when measured from the edge of the print. Insert this loose end into the other backplate so that there are no empty teeth.

  1. Slide the GT2 Pulley onto the Z axis motor’s shaft, with the set screws closer to the motor body. Don’t tighten the set screws yet. Place backplate and belt assembly on linear rails, threading the belt through the pulley on the stepper motor. Ensure that the back plates are oriented as shown in the image below.
  1. Insert M5x40mm bolt with GT2 idler into bottom of plate, and thread the belt around it. Secure backplates temporarily with two M3x8mm bolts as shown below.
  1. Slide the Z motor up in its hardware slots and check for belt tension. If you’re able to get the belt completely taut, great! If not, remove a loose end of the belt, snip off a belt rib from one side, reinsert, and try again. As long as you are able to get the belt taught from the movement of the stepper motor, you’re good to move on.

  2. While pulling upward on the Z stepper motor so that the belt is tesioned, tighten the four M3 bolts holding it to the X gantry.

  1. Finally, attach the left and right Z gantries to the back plates using M3x8mm bolts as shown below.

Mounting the Z-axis tools

QtyPart
1NEMA11 hollow shaft stepper motor
4M2.5x8 machine screw
1CP40 nozzle holder
1Pneumatic Couple
4M5x10 machine screw
2FDM-0027 (Belt Clamp)
  1. Now that our Z gantries are all tightened and moving freely, we can mount our final axis: rotation! Take your NEMA11 hollow shaft stepper motor and place it in the left Z gantry. Secure it in place with four M2.5x8mm screws. Make sure the wire port is facing outwards as shown below.

  2. Now we’ll mount a few bits of hardware to the hollow shaft motor. Screw the CP40 nozzle holder into the bottom side of the motor, and screw the press-fit pneumatic coupler into the top side.

  3. Use four M5x10mm screws to loosely attach two of your Belt Clamps onto the X Gantry Back.

Next steps

Continue to mounting the X Gantry to the Y Gantry.

8 - Mounting the X Gantry to the Y Gantry

Attaching the X gantry to the Y gantry

Now that we have both gantries assembled, it’s time to put them together.

X Gantry Tensioner Bars

QtyPart
2V-slot roller wheel
2FDM-0043 (X Gantry Tension Bar)
2M5x40 machine screw
2M5 Hex Nut
4M3x30 machine screw
  1. Fit the X gantry on top of the Y gantry rail. Make sure the X motor is on the left side with the front of the X gantry facing you.

    Proper orientation of the newly attached X-axis gantry

  2. Prepare two V-slot rollers. You may need to align one or both of the interior washers inside the rollers, as they can shift in shipping and block the hole for the screw. Simply push the washers back into place with a screwdriver tip.

  3. With the top roller bolts still loose, slide the two X Gantry Tension Bars onto the bottom of the X Gantry prints. Slide two rollers in between them, ensuring that the holes in them line up with the holes in the X Gantry Tension Bars.

    Sliding on the X Gantry Tensioner Bars
    Slotting two V-Slot Rollers in-between the Tensioner Bars

  4. Now we can secure the stack in place using two M5x40mm bolts. Pass them through the holes, and loosely tighten them into two M5 nuts in the slots on the X Gantry Back. Don’t tighten all the way yet; we still have some adjustment to do first.

    Securing the tensioner bars with M5 screws
    Loosely threading the M5 screws into M5 nuts to hold the Tensioner Bars on.
    Cutaway view of the new M5 screws going through the tensioner bars and V-Slot rollers and ending in the M5 nuts.

  5. Tighten the top roller bolts now that everything is in its place.

    Tightening the two top roller sandwiches

  6. Now we add tension screws. These are what hold the X Gantry Tension Bars in the correct position to have proper tension along the rail. Take four M3x30mm screws and pass them through the holes in the X Gantry Tension Bars, and thread into the M3 nuts inserted into the X Gantry prints, as shown below. Make sure each screw is tightened the same amount, and that the X gantry can still move freely, but doesn’t have any wiggle on the rail.

    Installing four M3 screws to tension the X Tension Bars
    Installing four M3 screws to tension the X Tension Bars side view

  7. Tighten the M5x40mm bolts that run through the bottom set of rollers (installed in the previously) so that their position is locked.

    Securing the tensioner bars with M5 screws

Camera and Ring Light

QtyPart
1USB Camera (Top)
1FDM-0015 (Top Light Mount)
1FDM-0014 (Top Camera Mount)
1Top Ring Light PCB
4M2.5x20 machine screw
2M3x14 machine screw
1Super Lube
  1. Before mounting the camera, you’ll need to make sure you can rotate the lens and adjust the camera’s focus. First carefully remove the set screw on the side of the lens assembly that is holding the lens in place. Next, unscrew the lens from the camera. You might need a light grip with pliers (preferably with soft grips) to get it to turn. With the lens removed, use a cotton swab to apply a very small amount of Super Lube to the lens threads. Be careful not to get any of the lubricant inside or on the lens. Wipe off any excess with a cotton swab or microfiber cloth. If necessary, you can clean the lens itself using a microfiber cloth. Screw the lens back into the camera and work the lubricant into the threads. Save the lubricant as you’ll use it again later. Finally, add the set screw back to the side of the lens assembly. Tighten the set screw just enough to keep the lens in place but not so much that it prevents you from adjusting the lens with a little force, as you’ll need to adjust the lens after the camera is mounted.

  2. Place the ring light facing downwards into the Top Light Mount. The LEDs will shine down, and the white plastic wire connector will face upwards.

    Installing the Top Light into the Top Light Mount
    Installing the Top Light into the Top Light Mount side view

  3. Place the Top Camera Mount on top of the Top Light Mount ensuring that the tab from the Top Light Mount fits onto the side opposite the arms on the Top Camera Mount. These two prints will pinch the top ring light in place.

    Attaching the Top Light Mount to the Top Camera Mount

  4. Install the Top Camera into the Top Camera Mount. Make sure the connector on the back side of the camera is between the two arms of the Top Camera Mount.

    Inserting the Top Camera into the Top Camera Mount
    Correct location of the wire connector for the Top Camera

  5. Secure the whole stack in place with four M2.5x20mm screws in the outer four holes (not the ones with a metal circle around them). Tighten them down so that all parts are tightly held together, but don’t over-torque; these screws are threading into the plastic of the Top Light Mount.

    Screwing in the Top Camera

  6. Use two M3x14mm screws to mount the Top Camera and Light subassembly onto the back of the X Gantry Back.

    Attaching the Top Camera assembly

Next steps

Continue to mounting the Y Gantry to the Frame.

9 - Mounting the Y Gantry to the Frame

Mounting the Y Gantry subassembly to the frame of the machine

Now the whole XY gantry assembly gets dropped onto the frame!

QtyPart
2M5x40 machine screw
4FDM-0009 (Roller spacer)
2V-slot roller wheel
2M5 Hex Nut
4M5 T-slot nuts
1Staging Plate
  1. Loosen the four M5x40mm screws holding the two halves of the Y Gantries together.

    Loosening the Y Gantries step 1

  2. Loosen the two M5x10mm screws that hold the Y Gantries to the X extrusion. Double-check that none of the captive nuts in either of the Y Gantries have fallen out, since they’ll be difficult to reinsert after the next step.

    Loosening the Y Gantries step 2

  3. Slot the entire XY gantry assembly onto the top extrusions of the frame. Make sure the X motor is on the left of the machine.

    Slotting the Y-axis assembly onto the main Lumen frame
    Highlighting that the X axis motor should be on the left side of the frame when mounted correctly.

  4. Re-tighten the four M5x40mm screws holding the two halves of the Y Gantries together.

    Re-tightening the Y Gantries

  5. We’ll add an additional roller to each Y Gantry assembly below the extrusions of the frame. Push a M5x40mm machine screw through the Y Gantry, then add on a Roller Spacer, a V-Slot roller, and then another Roller Spacer. Secure the assembly in place with an M5 nut slotting into the Y Gantry Support and threading into the screw. Note: you may need to align one or both of the interior washers inside the rollers, as they can shift in shipping and block the hole for the screw. Simply push the washers back into place with a screwdriver tip.

    The fully assembled lower roller assembly that holds the Y gantry in place. This should be done on both sides of the X axis

  6. Now roll the entire Gantry Assembly to the very front of the machine. Adjust the fit of the X axis extrusion inside the Y Gantries so that the top rollers fit perfectly into the v-slot. After you adjust them, tighten both M5x10mm screws that hold the Y Gantries to the X axis extrusion.

    Align the rollers with the groove in the extrusion
    Tighten the top screw when the rollers are set

  7. Now we need to make sure this spacing doesn’t just work for the front of the machine, but for the entire length of it as well. Loosen the machine screws connecting the back rail to the left and right side. While applying light pressure down on the Y gantry, roll it to the back of the machine. You might find that you need to expand or contract the back legs to have the rollers ride perfectly in the v-slot. Once you have the correct spacing, tighten the bolts mounting the back rail. This locks in the Y gantry extrusion spacing for the back of the machine as well. We also recommend measuring the spacing between the rails in the front and back of the machine, and adjusting until they’re the same.

    Loosen the screws holding on the back rail
    Re-tighten the screws holding on the back rail after checking that the spacing is correct for the rollers

  8. Use four Slot Nuts and four M5x8mm screws to loosely secure the Staging Plate to the frame. If you have the fiberglass PCB staging plate, the coordinate A1 is in the front left of the machine.

    Loosely attach the Staging Plate

  9. If you purchased additional staging plates, loosely secure them next to your first staging plate with four Slot Nuts and four M5x8mm screws.

    Loosely attach the additional Staging Plate(s)

  10. Adjust the Staging Plate so that it is exactly 95mm away from the Front Left Leg and Front Right Leg, then tighten it into place. This will be important for using the OpenPnP configuration provided for the machine. See below for how to measure the distance properly.

    Measuring the distance between the Staging Plate and the front legs

  11. Tighten the four M3x16mm screws, two on either Y Gantry assembly, so that the lower rollers are snug against the extrusion and ensure that the top rollers run well in their slots, too. Make sure that there’s no play or wiggle in the fit, but don’t over-tighten to the point of increasing resistance to rolling. The gantry should move easily, but not loosely.

    Tighten the rollers in place on the extrusion

  12. Lastly, tighten the bolts that run through the bottom rollers to lock in the tension setting.

Next steps

Continue to attaching the belts.

10 - Attaching Belts

Attaching and tensioning belts for the X and Y gantries

With a complete frame assembled, we can now route the GT2 timing belt that makes everything move!

QtyPart
1GT2 Timing Belt
4FDM-0027 (Belt Clamp)
8M5x10 machine screw
  1. We’ll start with the Y axis. If you’d like to precut your belt instead of routing the entirety of it through the machine, you can cut two 1400mm lengths for the Y axis motors. To help guide the belt through the openings in the prints, bend it backwards as shown below so that the belt has a curve to it.

    Bending the belt 1
    Bending the belt 2

  2. Take your length of GT2 belt and stick it inside the extrusion (smooth side facing outward), behind the Y Gantry as shown below. Getting the belt to come out of the slot in the Y axis gantry can be difficult. Here’s some strategies:

    1. Try using a small allen wrench with a ball tip to guide the belt out of the hole. (Photos below)
    2. Or, attach a twist tie to the end of the belt and guide that out the hole instead. When you’re done, the belt should be coming out of the hole on the side closest to the front of the machine.
    3. Running a long zip tie through the hole from the front, you may be able to catch the ridges of the zip tie with the ridges of the belt, and pull it through by retracting the zip tie.
      Overview of attaching the belt to the right Y axis
      Preparing to feed the GT2 belt onto one side of the Y axis Gantry
      Feeding the GT2 belt onto one side of the Y axis Gantry
      Pulling the GT2 belt through one side of the Y axis Gantry
  3. Using 4 M5x10mm machine screws and 2 Belt Clamps on the Y Gantry, slide the belt underneath the Belt Clamps and tighten them down with the GT2 belt flush with the edge of the Y Gantry.

  4. Now, take the other end of your belt and feed it through the Front Right Leg. Guide it through and around the idler in the Belt Tension Arm, and feed it back through the other side of the Front Right Leg as shown below.

    Looping the belt around one of the Y axis idlers
    Belt fully looped around and exiting back down the aluminum extrusion

  5. Continue to feed your belt along the inner side of the aluminum extrusion. Pass behind the Y Gantry Support—between it and the aluminum extrusion.

  6. Feed the belt through the inner side of the Back Right Leg. Then loop the belt around the GT2 pulley on the stepper motor and feed it through the outer side of the Back Right Leg.

    Looping the belt around one of the Y axis motors

  7. Run the belt along the outer side of the aluminum extrusion. Take the end and feed it through the other opening of the Y gantry, like we did in step 1. Feed the end between the Y gantry and the Belt Clamps. Make sure the belt tensioner on the front leg is completely unscrewed, meaning it’s angled as close to the leg as it can be. This will give us the most possible stroke to tension the belt in the next step.

  8. Pull on the belt with one hand, while holding the Y gantry steady with the other. Getting it generally taught is preferable, but don’t worry about getting it perfect; we’ll tension it correctly next. Push down on the belt clamp to hold the belt in place, and tighten the two screws to clamp it down. Cut the belt with at least 20mm remaining out the back side of the Y gantry.

  9. Now we can tension the belt. Slowly tighten in the M3 screw on the belt tensioner to increase the belt tension. Pulling back on the belt tensioner arm should be difficult, but possible. A tug should result in only a 2mm deflection.

  10. Perform the same steps on the left side Y axis.

    Overview of attaching the belt to the left Y axis

  11. We’re going to do the exact same operation for the X axis, but with one small thing to keep in mind: when looking at the back of the machine, start by clamping the belt on the right side of the X gantry (the side closest to the motor). This way, the excess belt will be sticking out of the X gantry on the side opposite of the limit switch, and prevent a problem with homing. You can precut a 1500mm strip of belt for the X axis or just use the rest of your belt and trim the excess.

    Overview of attaching the belt to the X axis

Next steps

Continue to populating the staging plate.

11 - Populating the Staging Plate

Mounting components to the staging plate

We now have the main structure of the machine assembled! Now we’ll mount some components to the bottom of the staging plate.

Overview

Refer to the images below for referencing where to mount parts on the staging plate.

Soldering Pump

QtyPart
1Vacuum Pump
1Vacuum Pump Wire (Labeled “P1”)
2Heatshrink (small)

Some LumenPnP kits shipped with a pump that had its connector pre-soldered to it. If your pump is not pre-soldered, follow along here to prepare your pump.

  1. Gather your Pump, the pump wire (labeled “P1”), and two lengths of heatshrink.

    the necessary components to prepare the pump

  2. Slip the heatshrink over the two exposed leads of the wire.

    Heatshrink slipped over the exposed leads of the pump wire

  3. Wrap the red wire around the left lead as shown in the image below. Wrap the black wire around the right lead.

    Red wire wrapped around the left lead, black wire warped around the right lead

  4. Solder both wires to the pump leads. The polarity does not matter.

    Wire soldered to the pump

  5. Slip the heat shrink over the solder joints and motor lead. Use a hot air gun, lighter, or other heat source to shrink the heatshrink.

    hot air gun.JPG
    finished product

Pump mount

QtyPart
1FDM-0025 (Pump Mount)
2M3 Hex Nuts
2Rubber Band
1Vacuum Pump
2M3x10 machine screw

The first thing we’ll mount to the staging plate is the Pump Mount. This print suspends the pump using two rubber bands to ensure none of the vibration of the pump is transferred into the frame.

  1. Start by press-fitting M3 nuts into the side recesses in the Pump Mount.

    Two Nut locations on the Pump Mount

  2. Now we’ll mount the pump in the Pump Mount using a couple rubber bands. Start by grabbing the rubber band with both hands, giving it a half twist, and folding it over on itself, making two loops.

  3. Now stretch each rubber band over each pair of pegs on the Pump Mount. Guide the pump between each pair of bands so that it’s suspended in the Pump Mount.

  4. Mount the Pump Mount to the staging plate using two M3 x 10mm screws in the location shown below, G31 and G33.

    Mounting position for the Pump
    The Pump assembly mounted on the staging plate

Valve mount

QtyPart
1FDM-0042 (Valve Mount)
1Blowoff Valve
4M3 Hex Nut
6M3x8 machine screw

Now we’ll attach the Valve Mount to the staging plate.

  1. Press fit four M3 nuts into the recesses in the Valve Mount.

    four nut locations in the Valve Mount

  2. Use two M3x8mm screws to attach the valve to the Valve Mount as shown below.

    attaching the valve to the valve mount with two screws

  3. Use four M3x8mm screws to mount the Valve Mount to the staging plate in the location shown: E23, E25, G23, G25.

    attaching the valve to the staging plate

Pneumatic Y splitter mount

QtyPart
1M3x30 machine screw
1M3 Hex nut
1Y Splitter
  1. Use an M3x30mm screw and an M3 nut to mount the pneumatic Y splitter to the staging plate as shown: B12.
    Attaching the Y Splitter to the Staging Plate

Bottom camera mount

QtyPart
1FDM-0019 (Up Light Mount)
1FDM-0020 (Up Camera Mount)
1Up Ring Light PCB
1USB Camera (Bottom)
4M3x30 machine screw
4M3 Hex Nut
4M2.5x8 machine screw
1Super Lube
  1. Slide the Up Ring Light into the Up Light Mount. The cable connector and LEDs should be facing the printed part, away from the camera in this photo.

    Assembling the Up Ring Light stack 1
    Assembling the Up Right Light stack 2

  2. Stack the Up Camera Mount Up Light Mount

    Assembling the Up Camera stack 3

  3. Just as with the top camera, you need to make sure you can rotate the camera’s lens to adjust its focus. First carefully remove the set screw on the side of the lens assembly that is holding the lens in place. Next, unscrew the lens from the camera. You might need a light grip with pliers (preferably with soft grips) to get it to turn. With the lens removed, use a cotton swab to apply a very small amount of Super Lube to the lens threads. Be careful not to get any of the lubricant inside or on the lens. Wipe off any excess with a cotton swab or microfiber cloth. If necessary, you can clean the lens itself using a microfiber cloth. Screw the lens back into the camera and work the lubricant into the threads. Save the lubricant as you’ll use it again later. Finally, add the set screw back to the side of the lens assembly. Tighten the set screw just enough to keep the lens in place but not so much that it prevents you from adjusting the lens with a little force, as you’ll need to adjust the lens after the camera is mounted.

  4. Stack the Up Camera in the Up Camera Mount. The cable connector for the camera should be as close to the cable connector for the Up Ring Light as possible, as pictured below.

    Final assembly of the Up Camera and Up Ring Light, with proper cable orientation
    Assembling the Up Camera stack 4

  5. Use four M2.5x8mm screws to mount the camera into the Up Camera Mount by using the inner set of four holes and tapping directly into the plastic.

    Assembling the Up Camera stack 5

  6. If you have the fiberglass PCB staging plate, you’ll need to install a support foot to keep the staging plate sturdy. Stack the Foot Mount on top of the assembly. If you have the metal staging plate, you can skip this step.

    Assembling the Up Camera stack 6

  7. If you have the fiberglass PCB staging plate, push four M3 nuts into the recesses in the Foot Mount.

    Assembling the Up Camera stack 7

  8. Use four M3x30mm screws and four M3 nuts mount the whole assembly to the staging plate: D18, B20, D20, F22 (if you have the fiberglass staging plate, these will be the nuts you installed in the previous step). The cable connector for the Up Ring Light should be facing down and to the left, away from the valve.

    Assembling the Up Camera stack finished with metal staging plate
    Assembling the Up Camera stack 8

  9. Ensure that your bottom camera matches the orientation to the image below.

    Up Camera Location on the staging plate
    Final assembly of the Up Camera and Up Ring Light, with proper cable orientation

  10. If you have the fiberglass PCB staging plate, note that this is where the foot will get installed when your LumenPnP is ready.

    Assembling the Up Camera stack 9

Nozzle Holder

QtyPart
1FDM-0024 (Nozzle Holder)
3M3 Hex Nut
3M3x8 machine screw
  1. Slide three M3 nuts into the slots in the back of the Nozzle Holder.

    Nuts inserted into the nozzle holder

  2. Using three M3x8mm machine screws, tighten the Nozzle Holder on top of the staging plate as shown: B8, D8, F8. Note: we will install the datum board later, ignore it in the photo below.

    Nozzle Holder location on the staging plate

Next steps

Continue to installing the motherboard.